Citizen Kane

Review of: Citizen Kane

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Citizen Kane

Citizen Kane – Die Hollywood-Legende (Originaltitel: RKO ) aus dem Jahr ist ein biografisches Fernsehdrama über die Entstehung des Filmklassikers​. Citizen Kane. Jörn Hetebrügge. Dieser Film revolutionierte die Filmsprache, sezierte die Medienlandschaft und dekonstruierte den. Citizen Kane (deutsch: „Bürger Kane“) ist ein US-amerikanisches Filmdrama des Regisseurs Orson Welles aus dem Jahr Bei seiner Erstveröffentlichung.

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Citizen Kane. Jörn Hetebrügge. Dieser Film revolutionierte die Filmsprache, sezierte die Medienlandschaft und dekonstruierte den. Citizen Kane – Die Hollywood-Legende (Originaltitel: RKO ) aus dem Jahr ist ein biografisches Fernsehdrama über die Entstehung des Filmklassikers​. Citizen Kane. Orson Welles. US. Min. Englisch mit Untertitel in Deutsch. Regie. Orson Welles. Drehbuch. Herman J. Mankiewicz; Orson Welles.

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Citizen Kane: Crash Course Film Criticism #1

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Miss Anderson Harry Shannon Edit Storyline A group of reporters are trying to decipher the last word ever spoken by Charles Foster Kane, the millionaire newspaper tycoon: "Rosebud".

Taglines: Radio's Most Dynamic Artist. The Man At Whose Voice A Nation Trembled. Now the screen's most exciting NEW star!

Edit Did You Know? Trivia The film's opening with just the title and no star names was unprecedented in It is now the industry norm for Hollywood blockbusters.

Goofs When Kane shouts at Jim Gettys from the stairwell, it is clear that most of the words he is saying are not coming out of his mouth.

Quotes [ first lines ] Charles Foster Kane : Rosebud Crazy Credits In a very rare move the director's credit is shown on the same card as the cinematographer's.

This was Orson Welles 's personal decision to show his thanks to cinematographer Toland for his enormous contributions to the film, meaning equal rights.

Alternate Versions Some of the Turner prints have the famous RKO logo removed and replaced with the Turner logo. Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this.

Frequently Asked Questions Q: Is 'Citizen Kane' based on a book? Q: Why does this film have the reputation as the greatest of all time?

Q: What is 'Citizen Kane' about? Edit Details Official Sites: Official Facebook. Country: USA. Language: English Italian.

Runtime: min. Sound Mix: Mono RCA Sound System. Color: Black and White. Edit page. Clear your history. Susan Alexander Kane. Emily Monroe Norton Kane.

Jerry Thompson. Walter Parks Thatcher. Miss Anderson. Both his wife and his political opponent discovered the affair and the public scandal ended his political career.

Kane married Susan and forced her into a humiliating operatic career for which she had neither the talent nor the ambition, even building a large opera house for her.

After Leland began to write a negative review of Susan's opera debut, Kane fired him but finished the negative review and printed it. Susan consents to an interview with Thompson and describes the aftermath of her opera career.

Kane finally allowed her to abandon singing after she attempted suicide. After years spent dominated by Kane and living in isolation at Xanadu, she left him.

Kane's butler Raymond recounts that, after Susan left him, he began violently destroying the contents of her bedroom.

When he happened upon a snow globe, he grew calm and said "Rosebud. Back at Xanadu, Kane's belongings are cataloged or discarded by the staff.

They find the sled on which the eight-year-old Kane was playing on the day that he was taken from his home in Colorado. They throw it with other junk into a furnace and, as it burns, the camera reveals its trade name, not noticed by the staff: "Rosebud.

The beginning of the film's ending credits state that "Most of the principal actors in Citizen Kane are new to motion pictures. The Mercury Theatre is proud to introduce them.

Additionally, Charles Bennett appears as the entertainer at the head of the chorus line in the Inquirer party sequence, [9] : 40—41 and cinematographer Gregg Toland makes a cameo appearance as an interviewer depicted in part of the News on the March newsreel.

Hollywood had shown interest in Welles as early as In , he declined offers from David O. Selznick , who asked him to head his film company's story department, and William Wyler , who wanted him for a supporting role in Wuthering Heights.

Following " The War of the Worlds " broadcast of his CBS radio series The Mercury Theatre on the Air , Welles was lured to Hollywood with a remarkable contract.

Schaefer wanted to work with Welles after the notorious broadcast, believing that Welles had a gift for attracting mass attention.

At first he simply wanted to spend three months in Hollywood and earn enough money to pay his debts and fund his next theatrical season. Welles signed his contract with RKO on August 21, which stipulated that Welles would act in, direct, produce and write two films.

Granting final cut privilege was unprecedented for a studio since it placed artistic considerations over financial investment. The contract was deeply resented in the film industry, and the Hollywood press took every opportunity to mock RKO and Welles.

Schaefer remained a great supporter [15] : 1—2, and saw the unprecedented contract as good publicity.

Carringer wrote: "The simple fact seems to be that Schaefer believed Welles was going to pull off something really big almost as much as Welles did himself.

Welles spent the first five months of his RKO contract trying to get his first project going, without success. He then started work on the idea that became Citizen Kane.

Knowing the script would take time to prepare, Welles suggested to RKO that while that was being done—"so the year wouldn't be lost"—he make a humorous political thriller.

Welles proposed The Smiler with a Knife , from a novel by Cecil Day-Lewis. Mankiewicz , who had been writing Mercury radio scripts. One of the long-standing controversies about Citizen Kane has been the authorship of the screenplay.

Mankiewicz, who was writing radio plays for Welles's CBS Radio series, The Campbell Playhouse.

In February Welles supplied Mankiewicz with pages of notes and put him under contract to write the first draft screenplay under the supervision of John Houseman , Welles's former partner in the Mercury Theatre.

Welles later explained, "I left him on his own finally, because we'd started to waste too much time haggling. So, after mutual agreements on storyline and character, Mank went off with Houseman and did his version, while I stayed in Hollywood and wrote mine.

The industry accused Welles of underplaying Mankiewicz's contribution to the script, but Welles countered the attacks by saying, "At the end, naturally, I was the one making the picture, after all—who had to make the decisions.

I used what I wanted of Mank's and, rightly or wrongly, kept what I liked of my own. The terms of the contract stated that Mankiewicz was to receive no credit for his work, as he was hired as a script doctor.

After lodging a protest with the Screen Writers Guild, Mankiewicz withdrew it, then vacillated. The question was resolved in January when the studio, RKO Pictures , awarded Mankiewicz credit.

The guild credit form listed Welles first, Mankiewicz second. Welles's assistant Richard Wilson said that the person who circled Mankiewicz's name in pencil, then drew an arrow that put it in first place, was Welles.

The official credit reads, "Screenplay by Herman J. Mankiewicz and Orson Welles". Questions over the authorship of the Citizen Kane screenplay were revived in by influential film critic Pauline Kael , whose controversial 50,word essay " Raising Kane " was commissioned as an introduction to the shooting script in The Citizen Kane Book , [17] : published in October Questions of authorship continued to come into sharper focus with Carringer's thoroughly-researched essay, "The Scripts of Citizen Kane".

He reviewed all seven drafts and concluded that "the full evidence reveals that Welles's contribution to the Citizen Kane script was not only substantial but definitive.

Welles never confirmed a principal source for the character of Charles Foster Kane. Houseman wrote that Kane is a synthesis of different personalities, with Hearst's life used as the main source.

Some events and details were invented, [29] : and Houseman wrote that he and Mankiewicz also "grafted anecdotes from other giants of journalism, including Pulitzer , Northcliffe and Mank's first boss, Herbert Bayard Swope.

Hearst was quite a bit like Kane, although Kane isn't really founded on Hearst in particular. Many people sat for it, so to speak".

The character of Jedediah Leland was based on drama critic Ashton Stevens , George Stevens 's uncle and Welles's close boyhood friend.

Many assumed that the character of Susan Alexander Kane was based on Marion Davies, Hearst's mistress whose career he managed and who Hearst promoted as a motion picture actress.

This assumption was a major reason Hearst tried to destroy Citizen Kane. As a known supporter of President Roosevelt, [34] whom both McCormick and Hearst opposed based on his successful attempts to control the content of radio programs and his ongoing efforts to control print, Welles may have had incentive to use the film to smear both men.

The character of political boss Jim W. Gettys is based on Charles F. Murphy , a leader in New York City's infamous Tammany Hall political machine.

Welles credited "Rosebud" to Mankiewicz. He regarded it as the prototype of Charles Foster Kane's sled.

Mankiewicz had a bet on the horse in the Kentucky Derby , which he won, and McGilligan wrote that "Old Rosebud symbolized his lost youth, and the break with his family".

In testimony for the Lundberg suit, Mankiewicz said, "I had undergone psycho-analysis, and Rosebud, under circumstances slightly resembling the circumstances in [ Citizen Kane ], played a prominent part.

The News on the March sequence that begins the film satirizes the journalistic style of The March of Time , the news documentary and dramatization series presented in movie theaters by Time Inc.

Houseman claimed that banker Walter P. Thatcher was loosely based on J. Maurice Bernstein, appointed Welles's guardian; [17] : 65—66 Sloane's portrayal was said to be based on Bernard Herrmann.

Citizen Kane was a rare film in that its principal roles were played by actors new to motion pictures.

Ten were billed as Mercury Actors, members of the skilled repertory company assembled by Welles for the stage and radio performances of the Mercury Theatre, an independent theater company he founded with Houseman in The film represents the feature film debuts of William Alland , Ray Collins , Joseph Cotten , Agnes Moorehead , Erskine Sanford , Everett Sloane , Paul Stewart , and Welles himself.

Cotten had recently become a Broadway star in the hit play The Philadelphia Story with Katharine Hepburn [16] : and Sloane was well known for his role on the radio show The Goldbergs.

Not all of the cast came from the Mercury Players. Welles cast Dorothy Comingore , an actress who played supporting parts in films since using the name "Linda Winters", [45] as Susan Alexander Kane.

A discovery of Charlie Chaplin , Comingore was recommended to Welles by Chaplin, [46] : who then met Comingore at a party in Los Angeles and immediately cast her.

Welles had met stage actress Ruth Warrick while visiting New York on a break from Hollywood and remembered her as a good fit for Emily Norton Kane, [16] : later saying that she looked the part.

She characterized her own personal relationship with Welles as motherly. That was something new in Hollywood: nobody seemed interested in bringing in a group to rehearse before scenes were shot.

But Orson knew it was necessary, and we rehearsed every sequence before it was shot. Welles later said that casting character actor Gino Corrado in the small part of the waiter at the El Rancho broke his heart.

Corrado had appeared in many Hollywood films, often as a waiter, and Welles wanted all of the actors to be new to films.

Other uncredited roles went to Thomas A. Curran as Teddy Roosevelt in the faux newsreel; Richard Baer as Hillman, a man at Madison Square Garden, and a man in the News on the March screening room; and Alan Ladd , Arthur O'Connell and Louise Currie as reporters at Xanadu.

Ruth Warrick died was the last surviving member of the principal cast. Sonny Bupp died , who played Kane's young son, was the last surviving credited cast member.

Production advisor Miriam Geiger quickly compiled a handmade film textbook for Welles, a practical reference book of film techniques that he studied carefully.

He then taught himself filmmaking by matching its visual vocabulary to The Cabinet of Dr. After dinner every night for about a month, I'd run Stagecoach , often with some different technician or department head from the studio, and ask questions.

Welles's cinematographer for the film was Gregg Toland , described by Welles as "just then, the number-one cameraman in the world.

On June 29, —a Saturday morning when few inquisitive studio executives would be around—Welles began filming Citizen Kane.

At the time RKO executives were pressuring him to agree to direct a film called The Men from Mars , to capitalize on "The War of the Worlds" radio broadcast.

Welles said that he would consider making the project but wanted to make a different film first. At this time he did not inform them that he had already begun filming Citizen Kane.

The early footage was called "Orson Welles Tests" on all paperwork. The next scenes were the El Rancho nightclub scenes and the scene in which Susan attempts suicide.

For these scenes Welles had Comingore's throat sprayed with chemicals to give her voice a harsh, raspy tone.

During production, the film was referred to as RKO Most of the filming took place in what is now Stage 19 on the Paramount Pictures lot in Hollywood.

In the end of July, RKO approved the film and Welles was allowed to officially begin shooting, despite having already been filming "tests" for several weeks.

Welles leaked stories to newspaper reporters that the tests had been so good that there was no need to re-shoot them. The first official scene to be shot was the breakfast montage sequence between Kane and his first wife Emily.

To strategically save money and appease the RKO executives who opposed him, Welles rehearsed scenes extensively before actually shooting and filmed very few takes of each shot set-up.

When the journalists arrived Welles told them they had "just finished" shooting for the day but still had the party.

Welles usually worked 16 to 18 hours a day on the film. Welles used this time to discuss the day's shooting with Toland and other crew members.

The special contact lenses used to make Welles look elderly proved very painful, and a doctor was employed to place them into Welles's eyes.

Welles had difficulty seeing clearly while wearing them, which caused him to badly cut his wrist when shooting the scene in which Kane breaks up the furniture in Susan's bedroom.

While shooting the scene in which Kane shouts at Gettys on the stairs of Susan Alexander's apartment building, Welles fell ten feet; an X-ray revealed two bone chips in his ankle.

The injury required him to direct the film from a wheelchair for two weeks. Paul Stewart recalled that on the ninth take the Culver City Fire Department arrived in full gear because the furnace had grown so hot the flue caught fire.

When "Rosebud" was burned, Welles choreographed [ clarification needed ] the scene while he had composer Bernard Herrmann 's cue playing on the set.

Unlike Schaefer, many members of RKO's board of governors did not like Welles or the control that his contract gave him.

When the executives would sometimes arrive on set unannounced the entire cast and crew would suddenly start playing softball until they left.

Before official shooting began the executives intercepted all copies of the script and delayed their delivery to Welles.

They had one copy sent to their office in New York, resulting in it being leaked to press. Principal shooting wrapped October Welles then took several weeks away from the film for a lecture tour, during which he also scouted additional locations with Toland and Ferguson.

Filming resumed November 15 [15] : 87 with some re-shoots. Toland had to leave due to a commitment to shoot Howard Hughes ' The Outlaw , but Toland's camera crew continued working on the film and Toland was replaced by RKO cinematographer Harry J.

The final day of shooting on November 30 was Kane's death scene. Citizen Kane was edited by Robert Wise and assistant editor Mark Robson.

Wise was hired after Welles finished shooting the "camera tests" and began officially making the film.

Wise said that Welles "had an older editor assigned to him for those tests and evidently he was not too happy and asked to have somebody else.

I was roughly Orson's age and had several good credits. It was outstanding film day in and day out. Welles gave Wise detailed instructions and was usually not present during the film's editing.

During post-production Welles and special effects artist Linwood G. Dunn experimented with an optical printer to improve certain scenes that Welles found unsatisfactory from the footage.

Stewart to re-do their work several times until he was satisfied. Welles hired Bernard Herrmann to compose the film's score.

Where most Hollywood film scores were written quickly, in as few as two or three weeks after filming was completed, Herrmann was given 12 weeks to write the music.

He had sufficient time to do his own orchestrations and conducting, and worked on the film reel by reel as it was shot and cut.

He wrote complete musical pieces for some of the montages, and Welles edited many of the scenes to match their length.

Written and directed by Welles at Toland's suggestion, the theatrical trailer for Citizen Kane differs from other trailers in that it did not feature a single second of footage of the actual film itself, but acts as a wholly original, tongue-in-cheek , pseudo-documentary piece on the film's production.

The trailer, shot by Wild instead of Toland, follows an unseen Welles as he provides narration for a tour around the film set, introductions to the film's core cast members, and a brief overview of Kane's character.

At the time, it was almost unprecedented for a film trailer to not actually feature anything of the film itself; and while Citizen Kane is frequently cited as a groundbreaking, influential film, Simon Callow argues its trailer was no less original in its approach.

Callow writes that it has "great playful charm Teasing, charming, completely original, it is a sort of conjuring trick: Without his face appearing once on the screen, Welles entirely dominates its five [sic] minutes' duration.

Film scholars and historians view Citizen Kane as Welles's attempt to create a new style of filmmaking by studying various forms of it and combining them into one.

However, Welles stated that his love for cinema began only when he started working on the film. When asked where he got the confidence as a first-time director to direct a film so radically different from contemporary cinema, he responded, "Ignorance, ignorance, sheer ignorance—you know there's no confidence to equal it.

It's only when you know something about a profession, I think, that you're timid or careful. David Bordwell wrote that "The best way to understand Citizen Kane is to stop worshiping it as a triumph of technique.

But Bordwell asserts that the film did put them all together for the first time and perfected the medium in one single film.

Griffith said, "I loved Citizen Kane and particularly loved the ideas he took from me. Arguments against the film's cinematic innovations were made as early as when French historian Georges Sadoul wrote, "The film is an encyclopedia of old techniques.

Bazin stated that "even if Welles did not invent the cinematic devices employed in Citizen Kane , one should nevertheless credit him with the invention of their meaning.

Citizen Kane rejects the traditional linear, chronological narrative and tells Kane's story entirely in flashbacks using different points of view, many of them from Kane's aged and forgetful associates, the cinematic equivalent of the unreliable narrator in literature.

The technique of flashbacks had been used in earlier films, notably The Power and the Glory , [71] but no film was as immersed in it as Citizen Kane.

Thompson the reporter acts as a surrogate for the audience, questioning Kane's associates and piecing together his life.

Films typically had an "omniscient perspective" at the time, which Marilyn Fabe says give the audience the "illusion that we are looking with impunity into a world which is unaware of our gaze".

Citizen Kane also begins in that fashion until the News on the March sequence, after which we the audience see the film through the perspectives of others.

Instead, the film's repetitions of events compels the audience to analyze and wonder why Kane's life happened the way that it did, under the pretext of finding out what "Rosebud" means.

The film then returns to the omniscient perspective in the final scene, when only the audience discovers what "Rosebud" is. The most innovative technical aspect of Citizen Kane is the extended use of deep focus , [72] where the foreground, background, and everything in between are all in sharp focus.

Cinematographer Toland did this through his experimentation with lenses and lighting. Toland described the achievement in an article for Theatre Arts magazine, made possible by the sensitivity of modern speed film:.

New developments in the science of motion picture photography are not abundant at this advanced stage of the game but periodically one is perfected to make this a greater art.

Of these I am in an excellent position to discuss what is termed "Pan-focus", as I have been active for two years in its development and used it for the first time in Citizen Kane.

Through its use, it is possible to photograph action from a range of eighteen inches from the camera lens to over two hundred feet away, with extreme foreground and background figures and action both recorded in sharp relief.

Hitherto, the camera had to be focused either for a close or a distant shot, all efforts to encompass both at the same time resulting in one or the other being out of focus.

This handicap necessitated the breaking up of a scene into long and short angles, with much consequent loss of realism. With pan-focus, the camera, like the human eye, sees an entire panorama at once, with everything clear and lifelike.

Another unorthodox method used in the film was the low-angle shots facing upwards, thus allowing ceilings to be shown in the background of several scenes.

Every set was built with a ceiling [73] which broke with studio convention, and many were constructed of fabric that concealed microphones.

He became fascinated with the look of low angles, which made even dull interiors look interesting. One extremely low angle is used to photograph the encounter between Kane and Leland after Kane loses the election.

A hole was dug for the camera, which required drilling into the concrete floor. Welles credited Toland on the same title card as himself.

Citizen Kane ' s sound was recorded by Bailey Fesler and re-recorded in post-production by audio engineer James G. Stewart , [41] : 85 both of whom had worked in radio.

Welles used techniques from radio like overlapping dialogue. The scene in which characters sing "Oh, Mr. Kane" was especially complicated and required mixing several soundtracks together.

Welles used an aural technique from radio called the "lightning-mix". Welles used this technique to link complex montage sequences via a series of related sounds or phrases.

For example, Kane grows from a child into a young man in just two shots. As Thatcher hands eight-year-old Kane a sled and wishes him a Merry Christmas, the sequence suddenly jumps to a shot of Thatcher fifteen years later, completing the sentence he began in both the previous shot and the chronological past.

Other radio techniques include using a number of voices, each saying a sentence or sometimes merely a fragment of a sentence, and splicing the dialogue together in quick succession, such as the projection room scene.

Kane was the first, in fact the only, great film that uses radio techniques. A lot of filmmakers know enough to follow Auguste Renoir 's advice to fill the eyes with images at all costs, but only Orson Welles understood that the sound track had to be filled in the same way.

The make-up for Citizen Kane was created and applied by Maurice Seiderman — , a junior member of the RKO make-up department.

On an early tour of RKO, Welles met Seiderman in the small make-up lab that he created for himself in an unused dressing room. He made a plaster mold of Welles's body down to the hips.

When Seiderman achieved the desired effect, he cast the clay pieces in a soft plastic material [81] : 46 that he formulated himself.

The castings were then fully painted and paired with the appropriate wig for evaluation. Before the actors went before the cameras each day, the pliable pieces were applied directly to their faces to recreate Seiderman's sculptural image.

The facial surface was underpainted in a flexible red plastic compound; [81] : 43 The red ground resulted in a warmth of tone that was picked up by the panchromatic film.

Over that was applied liquid grease paint, and finally a colorless translucent talcum. The make-up included appliances to age Welles's shoulders, breast, and stomach.

You could see how Kane's silk shirt clung wetly to the character's body. It could not have been done any other way.

Seiderman worked with Charles Wright on the wigs. These went over a flexible skull cover that Seiderman created and sewed into place with elastic thread.

When he found the wigs too full, he untied one hair at a time to alter their shape. Kane's mustache was inserted into the makeup surface a few hairs at a time, to realistically vary the color and texture.

The lenses took a long time to fit properly, and Seiderman began work on them before devising any of the other makeup. The major studios gave screen credit for make-up only to the department head.

When RKO make-up department head Mel Berns refused to share credit with Seiderman, who was only an apprentice, Welles told Berns that there would be no make-up credit.

Welles signed a large advertisement in the Los Angeles newspaper: [80] : 22 [81] : Although credited as an assistant, the film's art direction was done by Perry Ferguson.

Ferguson would take notes during these discussions and create rough designs of the sets and story boards for individual shots. After Welles approved the rough sketches, Ferguson made miniature models for Welles and Toland to experiment on with a periscope in order to rehearse and perfect each shot.

Ferguson then had detailed drawings made for the set design, including the film's lighting design. The set design was an integral part of the film's overall look and Toland's cinematography.

In the original script the Great Hall at Xanadu was modeled after the Great Hall in Hearst Castle and its design included a mixture of Renaissance and Gothic styles.

DeMille films and Intolerance. To save costs Ferguson and Welles re-wrote scenes in Xanadu's living room and transported them to the Great Hall.

A large staircase from another film was found and used at no additional cost. Still photographs of Oheka Castle in Huntington, New York , were used in the opening montage, representing Kane's Xanadu estate.

Walls were built to fold and furniture could quickly be moved. The film's famous ceilings were made out of muslin fabric and camera boxes were built into the floors for low angle shots.

Although neither worked with Welles again, Toland and Ferguson collaborated in several films in the s.

The film's special effects were supervised by RKO department head Vernon L. For example, the scene in which the camera in the opera house rises dramatically to the rafters, to show the workmen showing a lack of appreciation for Susan Alexander Kane's performance, was shot by a camera craning upwards over the performance scene, then a curtain wipe to a miniature of the upper regions of the house, and then another curtain wipe matching it again with the scene of the workmen.

Other scenes effectively employed miniatures to make the film look much more expensive than it truly was, such as various shots of Xanadu.

Some shots included rear screen projection in the background, such as Thompson's interview of Leland and some of the ocean backgrounds at Xanadu.

Optical effects artist Dunn claimed that "up to 80 percent of some reels was optically printed. Welles decided to superimpose snow falling to mask the graininess in these shots.

Any time deep focus was impossible—as in the scene in which Kane finishes a negative review of Susan's opera while at the same time firing the person who began writing the review—an optical printer was used to make the whole screen appear in focus, visually layering one piece of film onto another.

In the background, Kane and another man break into the room, while simultaneously the medicine bottle and a glass with a spoon in it are in closeup in the foreground.

The shot was an in-camera matte shot. The foreground was shot first, with the background dark. Then the background was lit, the foreground darkened, the film rewound, and the scene re-shot with the background action.

The film's music was composed by Bernard Herrmann. The score established Herrmann as an important new composer of film soundtracks [42] and eschewed the typical Hollywood practice of scoring a film with virtually non-stop music.

Instead Herrmann used what he later described as "radio scoring", musical cues typically 5—15 seconds in length that bridge the action or suggest a different emotional response.

Herrmann realized that musicians slated to play his music were hired for individual unique sessions; there was no need to write for existing ensembles.

This meant that he was free to score for unusual combinations of instruments, even instruments that are not commonly heard.

In the opening sequence, for example, the tour of Kane's estate Xanadu, Herrmann introduces a recurring leitmotif played by low woodwinds, including a quartet of alto flutes.

Music enthusiasts consider the scene in which Susan Alexander Kane attempts to sing the famous cavatina "Una voce poco fa" from Il barbiere di Siviglia by Gioachino Rossini with vocal coach Signor Matiste as especially memorable for depicting the horrors of learning music through mistakes.

In , Herrmann said, "I was fortunate to start my career with a film like Citizen Kane , it's been a downhill run ever since! Some incidental music came from other sources.

Welles heard the tune used for the publisher's theme, "Oh, Mr. Kane", in Mexico. All of the music used in the newsreel came from the RKO music library, edited at Welles's request by the newsreel department to achieve what Herrmann called "their own crazy way of cutting".

The News on the March theme that accompanies the newsreel titles is "Belgian March" by Anthony Collins , from the film Nurse Edith Cavell. Other examples are an excerpt from Alfred Newman 's score for Gunga Din the exploration of Xanadu , Roy Webb 's theme for the film Reno the growth of Kane's empire , and bits of Webb's score for Five Came Back introducing Walter Parks Thatcher.

One of the editing techniques used in Citizen Kane was the use of montage to collapse time and space, using an episodic sequence on the same set while the characters changed costume and make-up between cuts so that the scene following each cut would look as if it took place in the same location, but at a time long after the previous cut.

In the breakfast montage, Welles chronicles the breakdown of Kane's first marriage in five vignettes that condense 16 years of story time into two minutes of screen time.

Welles was influenced by the editing theories of Sergei Eisenstein by using jarring cuts that caused "sudden graphic or associative contrasts", such as the cut from Kane's deathbed to the beginning of the News on the March sequence and a sudden shot of a shrieking bird at the beginning of Raymond's flashback.

Laura Mulvey explored the anti-fascist themes of Citizen Kane in her monograph for the British Film Institute. The News on the March newsreel presents Kane keeping company with Hitler and other dictators while he smugly assures the public that there will be no war.

Roosevelt was laboring to win public opinion for entering World War II. Journalist Ignacio Ramonet has cited the film as an early example of mass media manipulation of public opinion and the power that media conglomerates have on influencing the democratic process.

He believes that this early example of a media mogul influencing politics is outdated and that today "there are media groups with the power of a thousand Citizen Kanes.

To ensure that Hearst's life's influence on Citizen Kane was a secret, Welles limited access to dailies and managed the film's publicity.

A December feature story in Stage magazine compared the film's narrative to Faust and made no mention of Hearst.

The film was scheduled to premiere at RKO's flagship theater Radio City Music Hall on February 14, but in early January Welles was not finished with post-production work and told RKO that it still needed its musical score.

Gossip columnist Hedda Hopper an arch-rival of Louella Parsons, the Hollywood correspondent for Hearst papers showed up to the screening uninvited.

Most of the critics at the preview said that they liked the film and gave it good advanced reviews. Bernstein Everett Sloane , who is effusive in his praise of Kane's management of the Inquirer.

Shortly after taking the paper over, Kane himself writes the Inquirer 's "Declaration of Principles," which states that the newspaper will be an outlet free of special interests and will champion the public good.

The Inquirer soon becomes the highest-circulated paper in New York and leads to Kane establishing a nationwide syndicate.

Bernstein is clear in his admiration of his former boss, even as Kane's newspapers focus on sensational yellow journalism that vastly increases circulation and pushes the United States into conflict with Spain in the Spanish-American War.

Thompson also details Kane's romance and marriage to Emily Norton Ruth Warrick , a niece of the president of the United States, which lands the wealthy Kane in a position of even greater power and prestige.

The next subject that Thompson interviews is Jedediah Leland Joseph Cotton , the former top reporter for the Inquirer and Kane's one-time close friend.

Leland reveals that Kane's success began to fail as he grew apart from Emily and started an affair with a singer, Susan Dorothy Comingore.

While Kane is running for governor of New York, his political rival exposes the affair and Kane's marriage and political career both end a newsreel earlier in the film revealed that Emily and her young son with Kane were killed in a car accident two years later.

After marrying Susan, Kane pushes her to become an opera singer—though her voice is woefully inadequate—and even builds Chicago's Municipal Opera House for her to perform in.

Leland and Kane's already-fraying friendship ends when Kane discovers that Leland is writing a negative review of Susan's performance.

Although Kane fires Leland, he finishes the negative review himself and publishes it in his newspapers. The film's construction shows how our lives, after we are gone, survive only in the memories of others, and those memories butt up against the walls we erect and the roles we play.

There is the Kane who made shadow figures with his fingers, and the Kane who hated the traction trust; the Kane who chose his mistress over his marriage and political career, the Kane who entertained millions, the Kane who died alone.

The tycoon has overextended himself and is losing control of his empire. After he signs the papers of his surrender, he turns and walks into the back of the shot.

Deep focus allows Welles to play a trick of perspective. Behind Kane on the wall is a window that seems to be of average size. But as he walks toward it, we see it is further away and much higher than we thought.

Eventually he stands beneath its lower sill, shrunken and diminished. Then as he walks toward us, his stature grows again.

A man always seems the same size to himself, because he does not stand where we stand to look at him. Roger Ebert was the film critic of the Chicago Sun-Times from until his death in In , he won the Pulitzer Prize for distinguished criticism.

“Citizen Kane” is more than a great movie; it is a gathering of all the lessons of the emerging era of sound, just as “Birth of a Nation” assembled everything learned at the summit of the silent era, and “” pointed the way beyond narrative. These peaks stand above all the others. The origins of “Citizen Kane” are well known. Beim heutigen Betrachten des Films sollte man berücksichtigen, ob es sich um eine restaurierte Version handelt. Durch den Einsatz eines Weitwinkelobjektivs wurde der Eindruck der subjektiven Kamera noch verstärkt siehe auch Point-of-View-Shot. Ohne der Chronologie zu folgen, werden Ausschnitte und Fragmente aus dem Leben von Charles Foster Kane gezeigt, Citizen Kane Www.Remember.De Zuschauer selbst, wie ein Puzzle, zu einem Ganzen zusammenfügen muss. Citizen Kane, American film drama, released in , that was directed, produced, and cowritten by Orson Welles, who also starred in the lead role. Citizen Kane is acclaimed by many critics as the greatest movie ever made. The newspaper baron Charles Foster Kane, one of the richest and most powerful men in America if not the world, dies. A newspaperman digs into his past seeking the meaning of his enigmatic last word: "Rosebud." He finds evidence of a child torn away from his family to serve Mammon. “ Citizen Kane is part of a general movement, of a vast stirring of the geological bed of cinema, confirming that everywhere up to a point there had been a revolution in the language of the. When a reporter is assigned to decipher newspaper magnate Charles Foster Kane's (Orson Welles) dying words, his investigation gradually reveals the fascinating portrait of a complex man who rose. Citizen Kane () IMDb 1h 59min X-Ray NR A story of idealism corrupted by wealth, "Citizen Kane" is thegreatest film of all time & is credited with inspiring more directorialcareers than any other film in history.
Citizen Kane

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Sie wurde Jahre alt. Als Millionär herrscht Citizen Kane Jahrzehnte lang über unzählige Zeitungen und Radiostationen. Der Erfolg ist es jedoch auch, der ihn mit der Zeit zu einem korrupten und machtgierigen Menschen macht. Verlassen von allen Freunden endet er. Citizen Kane (deutsch: „Bürger Kane“) ist ein US-amerikanisches Filmdrama des Regisseurs Orson Welles aus dem Jahr Bei seiner Erstveröffentlichung. Citizen Kane – Die Hollywood-Legende (Originaltitel: RKO ) aus dem Jahr ist ein biografisches Fernsehdrama über die Entstehung des Filmklassikers​. Orson Welles Citizen Kane gilt für viele als Bester Film aller Zeiten und erzählt aus dem Leben des mysteriösen Millionärs Foster Kane und seiner Sehnsuch.
Citizen Kane Retrieved April 16, Chuck Bass New York: St. Supernova Brian Tallerico. Best Film Editing. Archived from the original on May 25, During Expo 58a poll of over film historians named Kane one of the top ten greatest films ever made the group gave first-place honors to Battleship Potemkin. Citizen Kane The Night of the Hunter The Rules of the Game Sunrise L'Atalante M Singin' in the Rain Vertigo Children of Paradise The Searchers. Journalist Ignacio Ramonet Grubenunglück In Chile cited the film as an early Cowboy Ebike of mass media Www.Pfotenheld.De of public opinion and Sky Formel 1 Stream power that media conglomerates have on influencing the Www.Pfotenheld.De process. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Archived from the original on December 15, I drew a lot from that from my Chicago days. Archived from the original on January 30,

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