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The most successful card wargame as a card game and as a wargame would almost certainly be Up Front , a card game about tactical combat in World War II published by Avalon Hill in The abstractness is harnessed in the game by having the deck produce random terrain, and chances to fire, and the like, simulating uncertainty as to the local conditions nature of the terrain, etc.
Dan Verssen Games is a specialist designer and publisher of card games for several genres, including air combat and World War II and Modern land combat.
Also, card driven games CDGs , first introduced in , use a deck of custom cards to drive most elements of the game, such as unit movement activation and random events.
These are, however, distinctly board games, the deck is merely one of the most important elements of the game. The term "wargame" is rarely used in the video gaming hobby.
Most strategy video games depict realistic or semi-realistic scenarios of war anyway, so computer wargames are usually just called "strategy games".
If a strategy video game is especially realistic, they are often called "simulations". Computer wargames have many advantages over traditional wargames.
In a computer game, all the routine procedures and calculations are automated. The player needs only to make strategic and tactical decisions.
The learning curve for the player is smaller, as he doesn't have to master all the mechanics of the game. The gameplay is faster, as a computer can process calculations much faster than a human.
Computer wargames often have more sophisticated mechanics than traditional wargames thanks to automation. Computer games tend to be cheaper than traditional wargames because, being software, they can be copied and distributed very efficiently.
It's easier for a player to find opponents with a computer game: a computer game can use artificial intelligence to provide a virtual opponent, or connect him to another human player over the Internet.
For these reasons, computers are now the dominant medium for wargaming. In the recent years, programs have been developed for computer-assisted gaming as regards to wargaming.
Two different categories can be distinguished: local computer assisted wargames and remote computer assisted wargames. Local computer assisted wargames are mostly not designed toward recreating the battlefield inside computer memory, but employing the computer to play the role of game master by storing game rules and unit characteristics, tracking unit status and positions or distances, animating the game with sounds and voice and resolving combat.
Flow of play is simple: each turn, the units come up in a random order. Therefore, the more units an opponent has, the more chance he will be selected for the next turn.
When a unit comes up, the commander specifies an order and if offensive action is being taken, a target, along with details about distance.
The results of the order, base move distance and effect to target, are reported, and the unit is moved on the tabletop. All distance relationships are tracked on the tabletop.
All record-keeping is tracked by the computer. Remote computer assisted wargames can be considered as extensions to the concept of play-by-email gaming, however the presentation and actual capabilities are completely different.
They have been designed to replicate the look and feel of existing board or miniatures wargames on the computer. The map and counters are presented to the user who can then manipulate these, more-or-less as if he were playing the physical game, and send a saved file off to his opponent, who can review what has been done without having to duplicate everything on his physical set-up of the game, and respond.
Some allow for both players to get on-line and see each other's moves in real-time. These systems are generally set up so that while one can play the game, the program has no knowledge of the rules, and cannot enforce them.
The human players must have a knowledge of the rules themselves. The idea is to promote the playing of the games by making play against a remote opponent easier , while supporting the industry and reducing copyright issues by ensuring that the players have access to the actual physical game.
The four main programs that can be used to play a number of games each are Aide de Camp , Cyberboard , Vassal and ZunTzu. Aide de Camp is available for purchase, while the other three are offered free.
Wargames were played remotely through the mail, with players sending lists of moves, or orders, to each other through the mail.
In some early PBM systems, six sided dice rolling was simulated by designating a specific stock and a future date and once that date passed, the players would determine an action's outcome using the sales in hundreds value for specific stocks on a specific date and then dividing the NYSE published sales in hundreds by six, using the remainder as the dice result.
Reality Simulations, Inc. The mechanics were the same, merely the medium was faster. At this time, turn-based strategy computer games still had a decent amount of popularity, and many started explicitly supporting the sending of saved-game files through email instead of needing to find the file to send to the opponent by hand.
As with all types of video games, the rise in home networking solutions and Internet access has also meant that networked games are now common and easy to set up.
Hellwig's wargame was the first true wargame because it attempted to be realistic enough to teach useful lessons in military strategy to future army officers.
Hellwig was a college professor and many of his students were aristocrats destined for military service. But Hellwig also wanted to sell his wargame commercially as a recreational item.
Hellwig chose to base his game on chess so as to make it attractive and accessible to chess players. As in chess, Hellwig's game was played on a grid of squares, but it was a much larger grid, and the squares were color-coded to represent different types of terrain: mountains, swamp, water, trenches, etc.
The layout of the terrain was not fixed, which allowed players to create their own custom battlefields.
The pieces in the game represented real military units: cavalry, infantry, artillery, and various support units. As in chess, only a single piece could occupy a square, and the pieces moved square by square, either laterally or diagonally.
Over normal terrain, infantry could move a maximum distance of eight squares, dragoons could move twelve squares, and light cavalry could move sixteen squares — intuitively mirroring the speed at which these units move in the real world.
But terrain could impede movement: mountains were impassable, swamps slowed units down, rivers could only be crossed with the help of a special pontoon unit, etc.
A player could only move one piece per turn, or one group of pieces if they were arranged in a rectangle. A piece could capture an enemy piece by moving into its square, just like in chess, but infantry and artillery pieces could also shoot enemy pieces, at a maximum ranges of two to three squares.
A number of the inmates, including Chapman and Vause, are transported to Litchfield Maximum Security. Most of these inmates are interrogated, and several of them charged and sentenced for their involvement in the riot.
In max, new inmates are introduced, alliances are made, and a gang-like war emerges between two prison blocks, spearheaded by a longstanding feud between two sisters and a grudge harbored by them toward a former maximum-security inmate who returned as a consequence of the riot she had been moved to the minimum security prison.
Inmates who arrived from the minimum security prison are either caught up or willingly participate in the war between prison blocks.
The season portrays further corruption and guard brutality. The seventh season provides an ending to various inmate's stories.
In addition to the established setting of Litchfield Max, a significant portion of the season takes place in a newly created ICE detention center for detained presumed illegal immigrants, showing their struggles and lack of access to outside help in large part because of complete or extreme disregard of the law.
She is fired for these actions and her attitude toward the corporate corruption, although her short-lived changes have profound positive results.
Show creator Jenji Kohan read Piper Kerman 's memoir after a friend sent it to her. She then set up a meeting with Kerman to pitch her on a TV adaptation, which she notes she "screwed up" as she spent most of the time asking Kerman about her experiences she described in the book rather than selling her on the show.
This appealed to Kerman as it let her know that she was a fan and she signed off on the adaptation. In July , it was revealed that Netflix was in negotiations with Lionsgate for a episode TV adaptation of Kerman's memoirs with Kohan as creator.
She was perfect," said Euston. The Advocate touted Orange Is the New Black as possibly the first women-in-prison narrative to cast a transgender woman for this type of role.
The role instead went to Robert Stanton , who plays the fictional host Maury Kind. Orange is the New Black is set in a fictional minimum-security prison in Litchfield, New York , which is a real town in upstate New York, but it does not have a federal penitentiary.
The title sequence features photos of real former female prisoners including Kerman herself, she is the one that blinks.
On June 27, , prior to the series' premiere, Netflix renewed the show for a second season consisting of 13 episodes. Orange Is the New Black was widely acclaimed throughout its run.
It has been particularly praised for humanizing prisoners   and for its depiction of race, sexuality, gender and body types. The first season received positive reviews from critics.
The site's critical consensus is " Orange Is the New Black is a sharp mix of black humor and dramatic heft, with interesting characters and an intriguing flashback structure.
In his review of the series, he stated: "In Jenji Kohan's magnificent and thoroughly engrossing new series, Orange Is the New Black , prison is still the pits.
But it is also filled with the entire range of human emotion and stories, all of which are brought vividly to life in a world where a stick of gum could ignite either a romance or a death threat.
The second season also received critical acclaim. The site's critical consensus reads: "With a talented ensemble cast bringing life to a fresh round of serial drama, Orange Is the New Black's sophomore season lives up to its predecessor's standard for female-led television excellence.
The third season received critical acclaim. The site's critical consensus reads: "Thanks to its blend of potent comedy and rich character work, Orange is the New Black remains a bittersweet pleasure in its third season.
The fourth season received critical acclaim. The site's critical consensus reads: " Orange is the New Black is back and better than ever, with a powerful fourth season full of compelling performances by the ensemble cast.
By the first yardstick, Season 4 is ambitious but uneven; by the latter, it's the series' best. The fifth season received "generally favorable reviews".
The site's critical consensus reads: " Orange Is the New Black ' s fifth season offers up more of the sharp writing and dizzying tonal juggling acts that fans expect — albeit somewhat less successfully.
The sixth season received positive reviews from critics, with many critics noting its improvement over the previous season. The site's critical consensus reads: "Brutality and humor continue to mesh effectively in a season of Orange Is the New Black that stands as a marked improvement from its predecessor, even if some arcs are more inspired than others.
The site's consensus reads: "Carried by its exceptional ensemble, Orange Is the New Black ' s final season gets straight to the point, tackling hard-hitting issues with the same dramatic depth and gallows humor that made the show so ground-breaking to begin with".
Orange Is the New Black has received many accolades since its debut. The series has garnered 16 Emmy Award nominations and four wins.
A new Emmy rule in , classifying half-hour shows as comedies and hour-long shows as dramas, forced the series to change categories from comedy to drama for its second season.
In April , it was reported that a cybercriminal had stolen the first ten episodes of season 5, in a security breach of a post-production company.
Netflix failed to respond to ransom demands, and the cybercriminal leaked the episodes online. Netflix confirmed the security breach and an ongoing investigation by federal law enforcement.
It was also said that the leak would likely cause a decrease in demand for the fifth season when Netflix released it in June Orange Is the New Black generated more viewers and hours viewed in its first week than the other top Netflix original series House of Cards and Arrested Development.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American comedy-drama television series. Tilted Productions Lionsgate Television. This section needs expansion with: Main storyline s of seasons 1—4.
You can help by adding to it. August Netflix is famously tight-fisted when it comes to offering up viewership data about its original series.
But execs with the streaming giant have repeatedly confirmed that OITNB is its most-watched original series. That has been backed up by the efforts of outside measurement companies to track viewing in the Netflix eco-system.
Harney was credited as main cast for season 5 but did not make an appearance. Netflix Deutschland bietet seinen Kunden neuerdings die Möglichkeit, auch Profile mit einem PIN zu schützen.
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